## Inequality in Turkey

In this page, we interactively visualize the evolution of our wage, income and consumption inequality estimates for Turkey, as reported in *Tamkoç and Torul (2020)*.
In doing so, we adhere to the uniform guidelines proposed by the *Review of Economic Dynamics*, “Cross-Sectional Facts for Macroeconomists” special issue so that our results are cross-country comparable, and thus can be contrasted with
previous findings on other countries.

For variable definitions and methodological details, please refer to the original article. To download our updated estimates (for the 2002-2022 period) in the Excel (.xlsx) format, please download the spreadsheet document here. You can find the list of abbreviations and brief notes at the bottom of this page.

#### Wage Inequality

#### Wage Premium

#### Income Inequality

#### Equivalent Income Inequality

#### Consumption Inequality

#### Equivalent Consumption Inequality

#### Comparison of Income & Consumption Inequality

#### Abbreviations

*HBS*: Household Budget Survey (*Hanehalkı Bütçe Anketi, HBA*in Turkish)*SILC*: Survey of Income and Living Conditions (*Gelir ve Yaşam Koşulları Araştırması, GYKA*in Turkish)*P90/P50 Ratio*: The ratio of the 90^{th}percentile’s value to that of the median, where P90>P50>P10*P50/P10 Ratio*: The ratio of the median’s value to that of the 10^{th}percentile*Gini Coefficient*: A conventional inequality measure of*relative mean difference*. The Gini coefficient takes a value between [0,1] and a high Gini coefficient value indicates greater inequality.

#### Notes

- The unit of analysis is
*individual*for wage and*household*for income and consumption. - For wage calculations, we concentrate on working-age individuals (aged 25-60) and exclude individuals who did not report hours worked, as well as those whose
*annual*earnings are below 113 (constant 2002) Turkish liras (i.e., equivalent to half of Turkey’s*monthly*minimum wage during the first half of 2002). - For income calculations, we apply the same left-truncation as we do for wages.
- Education premium is defined as the ratio of the average wage of college-educated males to that of high school-educated males.
- Gender premium is defined as the ratio of the average wage of males to that of females.
- Experience premium is defined as the ratio of the average wage of males aged 45-55 to that of males aged 25-35.
- The Turkish Statistical Institute (
*TurkStat*) could not conduct*HBS*during 2020 and 2021 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We imputed estimates of our series for these two years using linear interpolation (based on 2019 and 2022 data).